THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT: DNA Declassified

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The Human Genome Project is an international research effort to characterize the genomes of human and selected model organisms through complete mapping and sequencing  of their deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. A relatively new field of research, bioinformatics  began in the 1960s with the efforts of Margaret O. Dayhoff and other noted researchers. A google report classifies it as a nebulous term that encompasses molecular evolution, biological modeling, biophysics, and systems biology. has been developed in part to address the computing challenges raised by this project.

The Human Genome Project was basically a race between three organizations to map and sequence DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid). The three groups were a private lab called Celera Genomics, a public company in London and the U.S. HGP (Human Genome Project), funded by the DOE (Department of Energy) and the NIH (National Institute of Health). The fifteen year project started in 1990.

a genome

The genome is the genetic blueprint of a human being. It is the complete collection of an organism’s genetic material. The human genome is made up of approximately 31,000 genes located on 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human cell. A single human chromosome may have more than 250 million DNA base pairs. It is estimated that the entire human genome consists of about 3.1 billion base pairs.

a gene

Genes carry information for making protein required organisms. These proteins determine an organisms appearance , metabolism, immunity, behavior and more.

This study’s goal was the understanding of genetic disease and human evolution. It was a major undertaking to identify all 30,000 DNA genes, determine the sequence of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up the human DNA, storing this information in databases, improving tools for data analysis, transferring related technology to the private sector and addressing the legal, ethical and social issues that arose.

The database has opened the door to the possibility of tailor-made treatments based on an individual’s  unique genetic makeup. Research has lead to more effective “Gene Therapy. The ultimate goal of this research was the cure and elimination of devastating inherited disorders.

All of the genetic information for a human being is packed into 23 pairs of chromosomes. The most important component of a chromosome is the single continuous molecule of DNA. The double-stranded molecule is shaped like a twisted ladder. It is made of nucleotides, which are linked chemical compounds.  Each nucleotide has three parts: deoxyribose which is a sugar, a phosphate compound and any of four bases- adenine, guanine, thymine or cytosine. The genetic code is specified by the order of these four bases referred to as the DNA ladder.

There are two main categories of gene mapping techniques. The first is linkage, or genetic mapping developed by American geneticist Thomas Hunt, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology in 1933 for this procedure. The other category is physical mapping. It is a more precise method that places genes at specific databases from one another. Physical mapping uses a combination of robotics, lasers and computers.

This project successfully identified the genes responsible for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, Huntington’s disease and genetic breast cancer.

 

Works Cited:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Genome_Project

Easing Senior Arthritic Pain

Arthritic joint and muscle pain is often caused by a substance called fibrin. Fibrin is defined in the Biochemistry dictionary as an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen during the clotting of blood. It forms a fibrous mesh that impedes the flow of blood. Fibrin creates long tough strands of insoluble protein that bind to platelets. These strands bind around joints and are found on and surrounding the joints of both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis sufferers.

The normal human body produces proteolytic enzymes which destroy fibrin. As the body ages the ability to produce these enzymes lessens. It becomes noticeable in the mid 20’s and worsens from there on. The exact age varies from person to person, however by 50’s – 70’s it takes ingestion of proteolytic enzymes to maintain an ample supply to destroy fibrin and eliminate its ability to create pain.

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Certain foods destroy proteolytic enzymes and should be seriously considered in the diet of an arthritis pain sufferer. One of these problem causers is gluten. Gluten is a protein source found in wheat, barely and rye.   All forms of wheat contain gluten. Some other everyday foods contain gluten examples are pasta and beer.

Another culprit that should be limited and or avoided is processed food. Processed foods contain added salt, sugars and unhealthy fats. A 2016 research study showed that processed foods contribute almost 60% of calories and 90% of excess sugar in the American diet. Pizza, french fries, peanut butter and many cereals are examples of processed foods.

Blackened foods are another killer of proteolytic enzymes. The summer grill provides wonderful flavor however, if the pain outweighs the taste consume in moderation.

Alcohol is a major destroyer of this vital enzyme. Many people consume 7 or more alcoholic beverages daily. 1 or 2 is enough to add to arthritic pain.alcohol

White sugar and its imitators create great damage. Hard to avoid? Maybe, but definitely worth the effort if pain is severe.

To add new proteolytic enzymes to your body eat raw fruits & vegetables as often as possible. Salads are wonderful choices. In the summer months consume fresh fruits and vegetables while the supplies last. Bromelain found in pineapple  and pa-pain found in papaya are full of proteolytic enzymes. 

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Year round sources of proteolytic enzymes include asparagus, unpeeled apples, figs and both black and green tea. All are wise choices containing rutin. Rutin is a prime replenisher of necessary enzymes to reduce pain. Citric bioflavonoids are also high in Proteolytic enzymes and found in all citrus fruits.

Turmeric containing curcumin is an especially important source of proteolytic enzymes. Learn to use it like it was salt. Put it in vegetables, soups, salad dressings, Mexican dishes. Adding it to chicken broth and egg yolks (deviled eggs) creates a deep rich yellow color.

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Ginger is a great choice. Ginger root tea hot or cold is a good refresher and supplier of proteolytic enzymes. Recipe: Boil 4 cups of water add ginger root ( cut a 2 inch piece, peel & grate), slice 1 lemon peel and all. Add grated ginger and lemon to water. Steep 5 minutes. Strain and add honey to taste. Serve hot or chill. Ginger is also a good taste enhancer in many food creations including oriental and many sauces, glazes and marinades

With just a little effort you can reduce the pain caused by inflammation and bone reduction brought on by fibrinogen right in your own kitchen.

Works Cited:

https://securessl.naturalhealthreports.net/products/136/5-worst-foods-for-arthritis-and-joint-pain?utm_type=paid&utm_source=Google&utm

https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/processed-

 

Bionics AKA Cybernetics

 

 

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Biological neural network  “Bionics” is the science which combines biological organs to technological interfaces. This direct interface technique uses a BNN (biological neural network. Some aspects of this technology are not new. The first heart pacemaker was implanted in 1960.  The older technology used electrodes to stimulate and manipulate existing biological organs. The pacemaker uses electrodes giving the heart muscle a mild electrical shock to stimulate a more consistent heart rhythm. The latest advancements use the direct neurological interface.  Technology has reached a level of sophistication allowing electrodes to be directly interfaced to human nerve tissue.  This direct interface uses what is known as biological neural networking. BNN has the ability to respond to thought. This process is known as open loop. It has the ability to stimulate feedback, known as closed loop. An individual who has a BNN closed loop artificial limb will have feeling in the limb. Imagine an artificial leg allowing the user to feel when he steps on a pebble.The Bnn is interfaced in the different methods of: interface to biology, biology to interface and biology to interface to biology.

 

Input-open loop BNN is a process called interface to biology and is the use of an electronic device to stimulate existing nerves. This is the first component of a BNN  interface and the simplest form of bionics. This is the oldest and most tested of bionic applications. The first example of of this procedure is the pacemaker. Devices have been implanted to stimulate hearing, sight, bladder control and breathing.

 

The second example of interface biology allows people without sight to see. Many blinding disorders are due to photoreceptor or outer retinal degeneration or destruction.  Lab experiments and clinical trials have been done in blind patients.  Results show that in an otherwise totally blind eye, controlled electrical stimulation in patterns can produce vision compatible with limited mobility and can generate shapes in the forms of large letters. These patients also often describe seeing color and direct movement.

 

A third example is for use in urogenital control. This is extremely useful for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The function of this type of prosthesis is to aid in bladder control.

 

The last example is the breathing pacemaker. These are designed to improve the life of people with ailments such as: SCI or disease, including quadriplegia,  central alveolar hypoventilation, decreased day or night ventilator drive (i.e. sleep apnea, Ondine’s Curse, brain stem injury or disease, including co-morbidity of hiccups, diaphragm myoclonus and diaphragmatic/phrenic nerve stimulator that provides support for patients with chronic ventilator insufficiency whose diaphragm, lungs and phrenic nerves have residual function.

 

Output-open loop is the process of biology to interface allowing the subject to interact directly with the device. The emergence of this technology involves allowing the patient to interact directly with a computer or electronic device. This is the second component of a BNN interface and is connected primarily with human output.  The major output that researchers are working to integrate is communication.The main purpose of this process is to provide speech where it would otherwise be impossible.

 

Input and out-closed loop is the process of biology to interface biology. This process is used in artificial limbs. These devices incorporate the other two types of interfaces into one technological miracle.  This system receives signals from the neurological system and processes those signals into movement, then sends a sensory signal back to the biological neural system that movement was successful. These actions stimulate actual feeling in some cases subjects with severed spinal columns have been able to move both legs. Much once thought impossible grows more possible by the moment.

Works Cited:

https://www.livescience.com/12954-bionic-humans-artificial-limbs-technologies.html

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/the-insane-and-exciting-future-of-the-bionic-body-918868/

 

Zeno Merritt Sr. & Emma Jane Beck- Cox

 

 

Grandpa Zeno Merritt Cox & Grandma EmmaJane Beck-Cox & my brother CorkIntroducing myself: I was a Tulsa/Claremore/Chelsea/ NE Oklahoma real estate agent from 1987- 2004,  a home mortgage lender from 2005-2009, semi-retiring to Chelsea as a police and ambulance dispatcher until fully retiring in 2012. I loved new construction sales selling homes in Marlar Farms, Rose Glenn and many other subdivisions. My childhood readied me for a job in sales. My Grandmother was a Cherokee Medicine woman Emma Jane Beck-Cox. My father Bob Cox was an auctioneer and grocery store owner. Now I live in a new senior development called Claremore Village. It is the perfect retirement village with pool, exercise gym and fishing pond. All apartments are ground floor with all the amenities you could ask for including lovely large front porches. I enjoy keeping up with the real estate, mortgage & law enforcement industries. I hope you enjoy my posts and articles. Feel free to ask my opinion on anything that I’m knowledgeable about including flower and vegetable gardening, fishing, canning, old recipes, candy & cookie making, crocheting, religion, the Cherokee Nation, et al.   Photo of my Grandparents Zeno Merritt Cox & Emma Jane Beck-Cox. The child is my brother E.W.  Corky Cox